O Level Biology Notes Singapore

Chapter 1 : Cells

Chapter 2: Movement of Substances

Chapter 3: Nutrients

Chapter 4: Enzymes

Chapter 5: Nutrition in Humans

Chapter 6: Nutrition in Plants

Chapter 7: Transport in Humans

Chapter 8: Transport in Plants

Chapter 9: Respiration in Humans

Chapter 10: Excretion in Humans

Chapter 11: Homeostasis

Chapter 12:The Nervous System

Chapter 13: The Human Eye

Chapter 14: Hormones

Chapter 15: Cell Division

Chapter 16: Reproduction in Plants

Chapter 17: Reproduction in Humans

Chapter 18: Heredity

Chapter 19: Molecular Genetics

Chapter 20: Ecology

Chapter 21: Our Impact On The Ecosystem

Chapter 1: Cells

Cell is the most basic unit of life. Each cell consists of living material called protoplasm. The protoplasm is made up of the cell surface membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm.

The animal cell consists of the protoplasm,  the rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulummitochondriavacuolesribosome, and the Golgi apparatus.

The plant cell consists of the protoplasm, the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the smooth endoplasmic reticulumcell wallGolgi apparatusribosomemitochondriachloroplast


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Light microscope vs Electron microscope Biology Notes O level.PNG